The medical application of activated carbon was initiated in the 1950s, when Arwall proposed that the blood of poisoned patients be purified by a column packed with Coconut Shell Activated Carbon. This concept was supported and developed by the Greek scientist Yatzidis, who and his colleagues used this method to successfully rescue two patients with barbiturate poisoning. In the early 1970s Chang proposed an original blood purification device. Before Nikolaev et al. proposed in 1970 that any adsorbent was used for human blood purification, these items must be tested:
1 physical and mechanical properties of the adsorbent particles;
2 physical and chemical properties of the adsorbent;
3 interaction of blood and adsorbent and other biological properties;
4 column dynamic resistance and the increase of adsorbent quality after adsorption;
5 blood protein dynamics;
6 the charge of the adsorbent particles in the biological fluid;
7 The ability of the adsorbent to adsorb specific metabolites and its substitutes from plasma
8 bio-end effect controlled by non-specific adsorption;
9 The toxicity of the adsorbent exists due to impurities.
At present, the most suitable adsorbent properties for human blood purification are described by Strelk and Nikolaev-Strelh. This adsorbent (made from styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) has an extremely smooth and hard surface. Spherical particles (it does not have any film coating). Russia has applied clinically active coconut shell carbon to blood adsorption, lymphatic adsorption, intestinal fluid adsorption and immunoadsorption, or a combination of the two. At the same time, the pore structure of Medicinal Activated Carbon is effective for the treatment of autologous poisoning caused by severe burns, certain infections, blood diseases and autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies of spherical activated carbon have shown that it can effectively reduce the concentration of various biotoxins in human plasma, and the adsorption of biomacromolecules is weak, which reduces adverse reactions and can be used for the treatment of renal failure. Activated carbon is also an excellent gastrointestinal cleansing agent that can be used to adsorb environmentally carcinogenic compounds such as pesticides, pesticides, heavy metals (such as mercury, cesium) and various pathogenic bacteria on the digestive tract wall. Activated carbon fiber is more compatible with blood than granular activated carbon, and has less damage to blood cells, and can purify viruses in blood. In addition, it can be used as an internal antidote to manufacture artificial livers, artificial liver assist devices, and kidneys.